Parathyroid glands regulate calcium levels in the blood stream.  Under normal circumstances there are four glands, all located in the lower neck adjacent to the thyroid gland.  If one of these glands becomes an “adenoma”, calcium regulation is altered.  This can potentially result in loss of bone density along with possible kidney and/or salivary gland stones.  Modern scanning techniques can usually localize these adenomas and they can be removed with minimal recovery time.